Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men. Charles Frederick, son of Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (a cousin of Charles XII)[nb 1] and Hedvig Sophia, daughter of Charles XI of Sweden, had been the Swedish heir since 1702. The Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I. After years of marches and fighting around Poland he finally had to invade August's hereditary Saxony to bring him out of the war. Finland was returned to Sweden, while Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia were ceded to Russia. He was determined to gain the Oder estuary with its access to the Baltic Sea for the Brandenburgian core areas, which had been a state goal for centuries. In the summer of 1706, Swedish General Georg Johan Maidel crossed the Neva with 4000 troops and defeated an opposing Russian force, but made no move on Saint Petersburg. However, the Swedish state ultimately proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Örjan Martinsson. This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. For a wargamer there is all you need to field a Swedish force but as the Great Northern War lasted so long you will probably have to decide on an early GNW Swede force or later. Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal and Narva, and in a counter-offensive pushed August II's forces through Lithuania and Poland to Saxony, dethroning August on the way and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt. Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended with the destruction of the main Swedish army at Poltava (now in Ukraine), and Charles's exile in Ottoman Bender. 240. Representation of Charles XII of Sweden, shot dead during the siege of Fredriksten in 1718. Russian breach of the blockade at Hangö forced Swedish fleet to withdraw to prevent Russian galley fleet from reaching Sweden itself. Charles showed no interest in returning, established a provisional court in his colony, and sought to persuade the sultan to engage in an Ottoman-Swedish assault on Russia. Campaigns and territorial changes 1700–1709 (left) and 1709–1721 (right), 1702–1710: Russia and the Baltic provinces, Olle Larsson, Stormaktens sista krig (2009) Lund, Historiska Media. The development of the 21 years of war are described and discussed to give the reader a good overview of the military (and partly the political) developments. 25,000 killed in combat. Russian victories at Erastfer and Nöteborg (Shlisselburg) provided access to Ingria in 1703, where Peter captured the Swedish fortress of Nyen, guarding the mouth of the River Neva. The peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. p 51. The Danish forces were defeated. Donnert, Erich; Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit: Festschrift für Günter Mühlpfordt (1997) (in German). [32] Swedish efforts to maintain their defences were greatly hampered by the drain of manpower by the continental army and various garrisons around the Baltic Sea as well as by the plague outbreak which struck Finland and Sweden between 1710–1713 which devastated the land killing amongst others over half of the population of Helsingfors (Helsinki).[33]. Swedish Uniforms in the battle of Narva. [40], Saxe-Poland-Lithuania and Sweden did not conclude a formal peace treaty, instead, they renewed the Peace of Oliva that had ended the Second Northern War in 1660.[41]. [18], Charles XII was now able to speedily deploy his army to the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and face his remaining enemies: besides the army of Augustus II in Livonia, an army of Russian tsar Peter I was already on its way to invade Swedish Ingria,[18] where it laid siege to Narva in October. A range of 28mm metal miniatures of outstanding quality to cover the Swedish Army of the Great Northern War. (1890) (in Russian). Swedish troops Great Northern War Gustavus Adolphus after Breitenfeld (1631) For nearly 30 years, the Swedish Army was the "new model army" of European warfare, from its advent under the great captain Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) through the end of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Charles XII of Sweden[nb 1] succeeded Charles XI of Sweden in 1697, aged 14. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye and in 1700 the three powers attacked. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[23]. Danish force. The Swedish navy was able to outmaneuver the Danish Sound blockade and deploy an army near the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Swedish General Georg Henrik Lybecker chose not to face the Russians with his 7 500 men in the prepared positions close to Vyborg and instead withdrew west of Kymijoki river using scorched earth tactics. Pernaja) and constructed fortifications there. The fleet had already arrived at Helsingfors (fi. This resulted in Great Britain declaring war on Sweden in 1717. Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II. Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been secured in 1701. Between 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. 214. Peter I demanded Charles's eviction, and when the sultan refused, Peter decided to force it by invading the Ottoman Empire. Frederick I was however willing to cede the Swedish support for his rival in Holstein-Gottorp, which came under Danish control and the northern part annexed, and furthermore cede the Swedish privilege of exemption from the Sound Dues. Caroleans were soldiers of the Swedish kings Charles XI and Charles XII. During the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). The ruler of the Russian empire: Peter the Great, the King of Danes: Fredrick IV, and the King of Poland-Lithuania: Augustus, had their share of interests in the Swedish empire. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. He is published in The Great Northern War Compendium and taught history at the University of New Hampshire. Charles XII refrained from all kinds of luxury and alcohol and usage of the French language, since he considered these things decadent and superflous. George I and Frederik IV both coveted hegemony in northern Germany, while August the Strong was concerned about Frederick William I's ambitions on the southeastern Baltic coast. Swedish and British fleets, now allied with Sweden, sailing from the west coast of Sweden failed to catch the raiders. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. The Swedish Army of the Great Northern War, 1700-1721 Paperback – Illustrated, Aug. 17 2018 by Lars Ericson Wolke (Author) 4.6 out of 5 stars 29 ratings. It was only on 12 May that Swedish squadron under Admiral Erik Johan Lillie made it to Helsinki but there was nothing it could do. Unfortunately, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. Mazepa died in 1710 in Ottoman exile. 52. During the war, the most important Swedish commanders besides Charles XII were his close friend Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, also Magnus Stenbock and Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. A young boy king had inherited the crown of the Swedish Empire, and his neighbors saw an opportunity to attack. After the disaster of Poltava in 1709, the shattered Swedish continental army could provide very little help. Helsinki) on 8 May and were met by 1,800 Swedish infantry under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. Charles XII led the Swedish army. Russia captured Viborg (ru. Charles XII † (–1718) Eleonora I (1718–20) Frederick I (1720–), Frederick IV † (–1702) Duke Charles (1702–) Stanisław Leszczyński, Initial force: 80,000: 76,000[1] : 5,000[2], Initial force: 260,000: 110,000[8]: 30,000[9]: 50,000[10]: 40,000[11] : 30,000[8]. On 12 May 1708, a Russian galley fleet made a lightning raid on Borgå and managed to return to Kronslot just one day before the Swedish battlefleet returned to the blockade, after being delayed by unfavourable winds. The war ended with Sweden's defeat, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and a major force in European politics. For parts of the war, Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. 268–272, 275; Bengtsson (1960), pp. Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II. August II was forced to sign the Treaty of Altranstädt in 1706 in which he made peace with the Swedish Empire, renounced his claims to the Polish–Lithuanian crown, accepted Stanisław Leszczyński as king, and ended his alliance with Russia. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, and its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War. Denmark contributed 20,000 men in their invasion of Holstein-Gottorp and more on other fronts. The uniform information comes from Lars-Eric Höglund's book while the strength reports comes from the work by the Swedish General Staff "Karl XII på slagfältet" and Margus Laidre's book "Segern vid Narva". Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. Peter I took advantage of this, and was able to redeploy a large number of men from Ingria to the Ukraine.[22]. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Fighting in the field, the Swedish army was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. The formal conclusion of the war was marked by the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm (1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad (1721). Articles needing page number citations from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Wars involving the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, had the king arrested in what became known as the "kalabalik", plague outbreak which struck Finland and Sweden, Treaties of Stockholm (Great Northern War), Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Algonet.se, Högman. p. 78. Russia gained its Baltic territories, and became the greatest power in Eastern Europe. p 132. When peace was concluded with Denmark, the anti-Swedish coalition had already fallen apart, and Denmark was not in a military position to negotiate a return of her former eastern provinces across the sound. For parts of the War Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. [37], After the death of Charles XII, Sweden still refused to make peace with Russia on Peter's terms. On the Swedish side were Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish and Lithuanian magnates under Stanisław Leszczyński (1704–10) and Cossacks under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1708–10). Poland-Lithuania was formally neutral at this point, as August started the war as a king of Saxony. This caused severe trouble for Russian supply route to Åbo and beyond as supplies had to be carried overland. Over 11,000 men were evacuated but more than 5000 horses were slaughtered, which crippled the mobility and offensive capability of the Swedish army in Finland for several years. This did not prevent Russian galleys from raiding town of Umeå once again. The Nyen fortress was soon abandoned and demolished by Peter, who constructed nearby a superior fortress as a beginning to the city of Saint Petersburg By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. [citation needed] He preferred the life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque courts. The Battle of Narva dealt a severe setback to Peter the Great, but the shift of Charles XII's army to the Polish-Saxon threat soon afterwards, provided him with an opportunity to regroup and regain territory in the Baltic provinces. However like so often Swedish naval units arrived only after the initial Russian spring campaign had ended. Apraksin gathered an army of 15,000 men to Vyborg and started the operation in late August. It doesnt for instance stand up in comparison to the Great Northern War compendium, but then its not supposed to. Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway, another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] succeeded Christian V in 1699 and continued his anti-Swedish policies. In standards of drill and recruitment, it was nearly unmatched by… He did put an end to the Swedish threat south of Denmark. pp. Dec 13, 2020 - Explore Foster Wood's board "Great Northern War / Stora Nordiska Kriget", followed by 712 people on Pinterest. For parts of the War Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. Peter managed to negotiate a retreat, making a few territorial concessions and promising to withdraw his forces from the Holy Roman Empire as well as allowing Charles's return to Sweden. There are also uniform schematics. 57. [24], Danish Altona burned down during Stenbock's campaign (1713). The Vyborg castle ablaze after the Russian attack on the city in 1710. Though his primary goal was Moscow, the strength of his forces was sapped by the cold weather (the winter of 1708/09 being one of the most severe in modern European history) and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. His ambitions to transform the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into an absolute monarchy were not realized. George I of Great Britain and Hanover concluded three alliances in 1715: the Treaty of Berlin with Denmark–Norway, the Treaty of Stettin with Brandenburg-Prussia, and the Treaty of Greifswald with Russia. Most of the Swedish dominions were partitioned among the coalition members, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence. August II, The Strong (left) and Frederick William I of Prussia (right). He completed his graduate work at the University of Sheffield, England. Ivan Mazepa was a Ukrainian Cossack hetman who fought for Russia but defected to Charles XII in 1708. The Ottoman empire defeated the Russian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but the peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. Under Armfelt's command Swedish army in Finland stopped to engage the advancing Russians at Pälkäne in October 1713 where Russian flanking manoeuvre forced him to withdraw to avoid getting encircled. Soldiers in the Swedish army who were mostly Finnish resented being repeatedly ordered to withdraw without even seeing the enemy. In the Treaty of Hanover (1710), Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) whose elector was to become George I of Great Britain allied with Russia. [31] In 1712 started first Russian campaign to capture Finland under command of General Admiral Fyodor Apraksin. When his army surrendered, Charles XII of Sweden and a few soldiers escaped to Ottoman territory, founding a colony in front of Bender, Moldova. Vyborg) in 1710 and successfully held it against Swedish attempts to retake the town in 1711. The Russian mobilization system was ineffective and the expanding nation needed to be defended in many locations. From his predecessor, he took over the Swedish Empire as an absolute monarch. A smaller Russian force advanced on the Swedish capital, but was stopped at the battle of Stäket on 13 August. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Charles wanted not just to defeat the army but to depose August (see above), whom he regarded as especially treasonous, and have him replaced with someone who would be a Swedish ally, and this goal proved hard to achieve. He did not achieve his main goal: to regain the former eastern Danish provinces lost to Sweden in the course of the 17th century. The war started when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony and Russia declared war on the Swedish Empire, launching a threefold attack at Swedish Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish Livonia, and Swedish Ingria, sensing an opportunity as Sweden was ruled by the young Charles XII, who was eighteen years old and inexperienced. In March 1700, a Danish army laid siege to Tönning. Russo-Crimean Wars. Yet, primarily due to internal conflicts in Great Britain and France, that did not happen. Additionally each regiment can mobilise in times of crisis or war operational battalions for the army's rapid reaction organisation. In 1697, Danish forces had levelled several of Gottorp's fortresses. Lybecker was soon recalled to Stockholm for a hearing and Armfelt was ordered to the command of the army. Most notably the Electorate of Saxony with a growing army which had reached 18 000 men when it to the great surprise of Sweden started the Great Northern War by attacking Riga in 1700, with Denmark and Russia following soon after. George I of the House of Hanover, elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and, since 1714, king of Great Britain and of Ireland, took the opportunity to connect his landlocked German electorate to the North Sea. Greenwood Publishing Group (2006). The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. In 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia allied with Russia in the Treaty of Schwedt. Later in the autumn Peter I led an army of 20,000 men in an attempt to take the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. The book describes how the Army was reorganized in the year before the outbreak of the war, with its unique allotment s The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and the Age of Liberty began. 1999), Svenska krig 1521–1814 (Swedish Wars 1521–1814) He has published several books and articles about the Great (Stockholm 1998) and Svenska freder och stillestand 1249–1814 Northern War, notably Fraustadt 1706 – Ett fält färgat rött (Swedish Peace Treaties and Truces 1249–1814) (Stockholm (Fraustadt 1706, A Field Dyed Red) which was critically acclaimed 1997). ), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Petersen (2007), pp. This is when the enemies of the Swedish empire realized that it was the time to get control of the lands of the Swedish empire. The tactics of Caroleans differed from those of Western European soldiers in their greater reliance upon pikes, rapiers, bayonets, and offensive strategy, which helped … On 21–22 May 1713 Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå (fi. Karl XII: En biografi. A grand mobilization covering Russia's vast territories would have been unrealistic. This successful invasion enabled Charles XII to dethrone August II and coerce the Polish sejm to replace him with Stanisław Leszczyński in 1704. In 1700, Charles XII had a standing army of 77,000 men (based on annual training). A respective treaty was concluded in Frederiksborg in June 1720. See more ideas about war, swedish army, military history. In the beginning of the Great Northern War in 1700, Karl XII proved himself a gifted military leader and won devastating victories over his enemies with relentless offensive tactics in battles such as Narva, Düna, Kliszów and Jakobstadt. Small hastily assembled Swedish coastal squadron met the Russian galley fleet west of Hangö cape in the battle of Gangut and was overpowered by the Russians who had nearly 10 fold superiority. Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. [26] Previously a formally neutral party in the Pomeranian campaigns, Brandenburg-Prussia openly joined the coalition by declaring war on Sweden in the summer of 1715. Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland. He ended Sweden's exemption from the Sound Dues (transit taxes/tariffs on cargo moved between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea). May 9, 2019 - Explore Chip DuRant's board "Great Northern War", followed by 807 people on Pinterest. A major assault on 15 July 1705 resulted in the deaths of more than a third of a 1,500-strong Swedish landing force.[21]. Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century, and ceased to be a major power. [36], In 1714 far greater Swedish naval assets were diverted towards Finland which managed to cut the coastal sea route past Hangö cape already in early May 1714. The occupation period of Finland in 1714–1721 is known as the Greater Wrath. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga, at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Empire by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. [16] Simultaneously, Augustus II's forces advanced through Swedish Livonia, captured Dünamünde and laid siege to Riga. August II resisted, still possessing control of his native Saxony, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706, a battle sometimes compared to the Ancient Battle of Cannae due to the Swedish forces' use of double envelopment, with a deadly result for the Saxon army. Despite a continued Swedish naval presence and strong patrols to protect the coast since 1715 small Russian raids took place in 1716 at Öregrund while in July 1717 Russian squadron landed troops to Gotland who raided for supplies. Russia was able to mobilize a larger army, but could not put all of it into action simultaneously. Charles XII then turned south to meet his last undefeated opponent: Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony and another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] gained the Polish crown after the death of Jan Sobieski in 1696. Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth river. Frederik IV of Denmark–Norway directed his first attack against Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp. The outbreak of war in 1700 forced Sweden to expand its already large army. See more ideas about war, swedish army, war art. In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October. When the main army turned south to recover in the Ukraine, the second army with supplies and reinforcements was intercepted and routed at Lesnaya—and so were the supplies and reinforcements of Swedish ally Ivan Mazepa in Baturyn. Roundway come with cast on flags which I removed in no time at all with a pair of snips. Peter I had meanwhile recovered and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where he cemented Russia's access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. Pursued by coalition forces, the Swedish army was trapped and surrendered in the Siege of Tönning. Instead he initiated a march from Saxony to invade Russia. Hanover gained Swedish Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania. Campaign from Grodno to Poltava 1706–1709, Boleslaw I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis, 1018, First Mongol invasion of Poland (1240/41), Second Mongol invasion of Poland (1259/60), Third Mongol invasion of Poland (1287/88), Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–22), Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–37), https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Great_Northern_War?oldid=4520150, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. For parts of the War also Prussia and Hannover joined the enemy coalition.The book describes how the Army was reorganised in the year before the outbreak of the war, with its unique allotment system of recruitment. This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Miniature Wargames, DeliveryFrequently Asked QuestionsDownloads inc. Catalogues & Paper SoldiersTrade InformationAuthor GuidelinesTerms & Conditions, Helion & CompanyUnit 8, Amherst Business CentreBudbrooke RoadWarwickCV34 5WE, © 2019 - 2021 Helion & Company Limited & SWD • Legal Info • Terms of Use • Privacy & Cookies, War & Military Culture in South Asia 1757-1947. Frederick IV and Augustus II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709. The book describes how the Army was reorganised in the year before the outbreak of the war, with its unique allotment system of recruitment. He is also an avid reenactor and wargamer. The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated the Oder estuary, Russia secured the Baltic provinces, and Denmark strengthened her position in Schleswig-Holstein. These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration (both civilian and military) in the course of the 17th century which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way. Raiding continued for a month and devastated amongst others the towns of Norrtälje, Södertälje, Nyköping and Norrköping and almost all buildings in the archipelago of Stockholm were burned. [27] Charles was then at war with much of Northern Europe, and Stralsund was doomed. Charles Frederick was married to a daughter of Peter I, Anna Petrovna. For parts of the War also Prussia and Hannover joined the enemy coalition. Pages : 120 | Images : 8pp colour plates, b/w ills & maps, Paperback - Date of Publication : June 2018 | Size : 248mm x 180mm | ISBN : 9781912390182 | Helion Book Code : HEL0910. ISBN 978-91-85873-59-3, Bengt Liljegren (2000). Baskakov, Benjamin I. Since Russian galley fleet was not able to raid the Swedish coast, with exception of Umeå which was plundered on 18 September, fleet supported the advance of the Russian army which led to hastily withdrawal of the Swedish army from Brahestad to Torneå. [29], Hanover-Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia thereupon negotiated separate peace treaties with Sweden, the treaties of Stockholm in 1719 and early 1720, which partitioned Sweden's northern German dominions among the parties. [17], Charles XII of Sweden first focused on attacking Denmark. [39], By the time of Charles XII's death, the anti-Swedish allies became increasingly divided on how to fill the power gap left behind by the defeated and retreating Swedish armies. Returning to the group of books that I got at Christmas time I will look at Helion's The Swedish Army In The Great Northern War 1700-21 by Lars Ericson Wolke. After Charles XII had returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, he initiated two Norwegian Campaigns, starting in February 1716, to force Denmark–Norway into a separate peace treaty. The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten on 30 November 1718 (OS). Disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament, Charles crossed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and decisively defeated the Saxe-Polish forces in the Battle of Klissow in 1702. In 1697, Sweden was a great power until Charles XI died; he left the entire empire in the hands of his 14-year-old son, Charles XII. Swedish gains in the autumn peter I the anti-Swedish coalition was re-established and joined! Under protection of the army are presented, not the least how they during! 2018 - Explore James Isakov 's board `` Great Northern war 1700 -,! 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